Gallstones have become a major health problem because of their silent manifestation and unclear pathogenesis. In fact, Cholelithiasis or gallstone disease is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders being prevalent in about 10-15% of adults in developing countries.
In a review of worldwide incidence, the female-to-male ratio was reported between 2 and 3. Although the association between disturbed lipid metabolism and the formation of gallstones has been elucidated in many studies, the eﬀect of cholecystectomy on lipid profile has not been studied in detail.
Based on evidence more than 50% of patients with gallstones have some sort of lipid disorder. It is now widely accepted that the primary event in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones is an altered lipid metabolism, because of which there is a relative increase in the cholesterol levels compared to other lipids secreted by the liver into the bile.
Cholecystectomy causes a redistribution of bile acid pool in the entero-hepatic circulation and increases the frequency of cycling causing a reduction in pool size thus exerting eﬀect on lipid profile decreasing total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.
Women are twice as likely as men to form gallstones. The most common gallstone type found is the mixed type and the least is the cholesterol type. The age group most commonly aﬀected is between 31-50 years.
There is a statistically significant association between high BMI and the occurrence of gallstones. There is a statistically significant association between diabetes and the occurrence of gallstones. No association has been found with parity, use of OCP, occupation, smoking, or alcoholism in patients with cholelithiasis.
Material & Methods
This prospective observational study included 50 patients with gall stones admitted to the Surgery Department of multispeciality govt Hospital for the duration of 1 year from Jan 2017 to Dec 2017 and who underwent cholecystectomy. The lipid profile was evaluated pre-operatively on the day of operation and postoperatively on 7th day and 12 months after.
Blood samples were collected from all of the study subjects prior to surgery, and again six months after the procedure. A total of 50 adult patients (Gender: 8 males, 42 females; Age range: 25-65 years, Mean age+SD: 45.5 ± 12.2 years) with gall stone disease were included in this case-control prospective interventional phase-I study of our objectives. The patients with gallstone disease were diagnosed as having cholelithiasis according to standard clinical and laboratory criteria as practised in the hospital.
The article is referred from India’s leading gallbladder laparoscopy surgeon Dr Amita Jain’s Journal, titled “EFFECT OF CHOLECYSTECTOMY ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE”. You can read the complete journal here – worldwidejournals.com
Dr Amita Jain is a surgeon with highest degree of professional competence, precision and surgical craftsmanship. Performed all complicated general surgery procedures with in depth knowledge of invasive and few minimal invasive and onco surgical techniques. Underwent special training in trauma, executed various trauma-related complex life-saving neurosurgical procedures, reconstructed injured mangled limbs and performed vascular and reconstructive procedures with critical care.
Dr Amita Jain holds 28 plus years of rich experience in Trauma and General Laparoscopic Surgeries (including Gallbladder stone removal, appendix removal, hernia repair surgery, piles and fissure surgeries). She was the Professor Surgery of at the Army College of Medical Sciences and Base Hospital Delhi Cantt. In 1994 she was commissioned as Surgeon under the United Nations Mission in Congo. From 2020 to 2022, she worked with Bansals Hospital. Currently, Dr Amita Jain is the Senior Consultant, (Speciality: General and Laparoscopic Surgeon) at Artemis Lite Hospital, New Delhi